Budget Option - $100
Audio-Technica ATR2100X

While this may be the "budget" option, the quality certainly is not. It's Max's favourite mic especially for the female voice which is higher in sibilance (the S and SH sound). Audio-Technica has been making mics since 1962 and they know what they are doing. It's an indestructible workhorse

Medium Option - $250
Shure MV7

Shure is another company that's been around forever making the best microphones out there. The MV7 is a perfect podcasting mic for most use cases. It sounds slighty warmer than the ATR above. The MV7 is the little brother to the king of podcast mics, the SM7B. Arguably one of the best sounding podcasts uses the MV7, "Making Sense" with Sam Harris

The King - $500
Shure SM7dB

Launched n 1976 and only updated twice, this is simply the king of broadcast microphones. Once you know to look for it you'll see it in literally every professional podcast situation from Joe Rogan to Kevin Chemidlin. It's not cheap, but nothing sounds better. It used to require a $200 pre-amp to work but it's recently been upgraded to have an amp built in! You won't find a better mic out there.